Sheet Pile Walls
Sheet piling system is founded upon using pre-installed piles as the reaction force for installing subsequent piles and continues by working along the line. The system has an added benefit of being able to work in restricted regions including cuttings and on sloping railway embankments or over the water.
Diaphragm wall refers to some underground structural elements typically utilized as permanent foundation systems and retention walls. Diaphragm walls can be designed to take high structural loads and tend to be utilized for retaining deep excavations. Diaphragm walls feature exceptional water tightness ability compared to secant walls. As a consequence, they have few joints and can also be employed as groundwater barriers.
Lagging Wall and Soldier Pile
Lagging wall and soldier piles have successfully been employed since the late 18th century in various metropolitan cities like New York Berlin, and London. Therefore, they are among the oldest forms of retaining systems utilized in deep excavations. Lagging walls and soldier piles are fast and easy to construct. They are also the cheapest systems compared to other types of walls. The price point of these walls make them an attractive option for many contruction and civil engineering contractors and companies. The lagging bridges retain soil across piles and transfer the lateral load to the soldier pile system. Passive soil resistance is achieved through embedding the soldier piling beneath the excavation grade. Moment resistance in lagging walls and soldier pile is offered solely by the soldier piles.
Embedded retaining walls are employed in various civil engineering applications, especially in buried structures such as tunnel approaches or underpasses, construction of basement walls, and embankment stabilization. The common types of retaining walls include secant pile walls, contiguous pile walls, and soldier pile walls.
The Importance of Retaining Walls
Retaining walls can be employed in both permanent and temporary conditions. The use of ground retaining walls is a superb way of minimizing the bulk excavation required to achieve the preferred ground profiles.
The process and conditions in which the wall is to be utilized determines the cost of building retaining walls. Some of the aspects considered when designing a retaining wall include the design life, desired wall geometry, propping options, and acceptable deflections, retained height and ground water and soil conditions. These factors are usually deliberated over by both the civil contractors as well as the owner of the land.
Tangent Pile Wall
Tangent piling walls are a variation of soldier pile walls and secant pile walls. They are usually easier and faster to construct. They also have increased construction alignment flexibility. Tangent pile walls are mainly designed with no overlap, and ideally one pile touches the other.
The above video shows the process in which a RW is built.
Kingpost walls are usually employed as temporary retaining walls. A kingpost (open bore filled with concrete to create a base for steel H-pile) is used in this type of piling system. Steel sheets, precast concrete or panels of timber can then be slotted into the steel H-piles to develop a retaining wall.